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military aviation, part iii - - difference between bone china and porcelain dinnerware

by:Two Eight     2019-09-18
military aviation, part iii -  -  difference between bone china and porcelain dinnerware
During the Spanish Civil War, nationalists under Francisco Franco widely used aerial bombing of civilian targets.
Nazi Germany provided Franco with a plane to support the overthrow of the Spa. . .
During the Spanish Civil War, nationalists under Francisco Franco widely used aerial bombing of civilian targets.
In support of the overthrow of the Spanish Republican government, Nazi Germany provided the plane to Franco.
The first major example was the bombing of the Republican Party by German and Spanish planes in November 1936. held Madrid;
Throughout the siege of Madrid, the bombing continued.
Barcelona and Valencia were also targeted.
On April 26, 1937, the German and German air forces bombed the Spanish city of glica and carried out the highest level of bombing.
Air attack of war.
This behavior caused global upheaval and was a famous Picasso painting, but at the level of World War II, the number of casualties was small (estimated at 500 to 1,500 ).
Shortly after, the June 3, 1937 Almeria Daily made headlines referring to media reports in London and Paris that "the criminal bombing of the German plane on Almeria ".
Starting in March 16, 1938, Barcelona was bombed for three days at the height of the Spanish Civil War.
Under the command of Italian dictator Mussolini, the Italian plane stationed on Mallorca dropped 44 tons of bombs on civilians 13 times.
The attacks were retaliated against the Catalans at the request of General Franco.
Barcelona's medieval cathedral was hit by a bomb that killed more than 1,000 people, including many children.
It is estimated that thousands of people were injured.
Many other Spanish towns have been bombed by the German Legion Eagle and the Italian Army, including Jaen, Durango, Granollers and Alicante.
In the Manchuria Incident of 1931, Japan widely used aircraft to bomb key targets and cities such as Fengtian.
After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, the Japanese Imperial Army air force, together with the Japanese Imperial Navy Air Force, began a relentless bombing of Shanghai, Beijing (Beijing) and Tianjin (Tianjin. Starting from the second China, several cities along the coast of China
Japan War of 1937
The bombing of Nanjing and Guangzhou, which began in September 1937, caused protests from Western powers and eventually led to a resolution by the Alliance Far East Advisory Committee.
An example of many angry expressions comes from Lord Cranbourne, under the UK
Minister of Foreign Affairs: language cannot express the deep fear that the entire civilized world received the news of these raids.
They are often targeted at places far away from actual hostile areas.
If there is a military target, it seems to be in second place.
The main purpose seems to be to provoke terror by slaughtering civilians without distinction. . .
At the beginning of World War II, the pre-invasion bombing of the city was an integral part of Nazi German strategy.
During the first phase of the war, the Germans bombed Poland (1939) towns and towns many times, including the capital Warsaw (which was also bombed on 1944 ), wieluD was the first city to be destroyed by 75% people.
The Soviet Union also tried to carry out strategic bombing of Poland and Finland and bomb Helsinki.
On May 11, 1940, the British bombed the city of mengchengladbach in Germany.
After Britain declared war on Germany on September 1939, Germany did not carry out air bombing on British cities, but Britain began air bombing on Germany, officially focusing on military and industrial targets, on the evening of 15/16 months, 78 bombers targeted oil, 9 pairs of steel plants and 9 pairs of yards.
Until the summer of 1941, oil remained Britain's main target, although German towns had been bombarded regularly since May 1940.
After the fall of France, the German Air Force turned its attention to Britain.
The size of the attacks in July 1940 increased significantly, with 258 civilians killed and another 1,075 Killed in August.
On the night of August 25, British bombers attacked targets for the first time in Greater Berlin and its surrounding areas in response to the British air force's accidental bombing of Oxford Street and the West End during the bombing of London's pier.
On September 4, 1940, Hitler was frustrated by the British Royal Air Force's dominance of the German Air Force, angry at the bombing of German cities, and decided to retaliate by bombing London and other British cities.
On September 7, the German air force launched a massive attack on London.
The bombing campaign, known in Britain as the "blitz", lasted from September 1, 1940 to May 1941.
Coventry Blitz and Belfast St blitz are the two worst bomb attacks by the German air force, killing 568 people.
There were 1,000 civilians in Coventry, killing more than 1,100 civilians, and most of the two city centres were destroyed.
During the war, the British bombing policy changed.
At first, the Royal Air Force was banned from attacking German targets due to the risk of accidental civilian casualties.
On March 16, 1940, Germany launched an attack on military targets in the Orkney Islands, killing one civilian. Since then, the Royal Air Force has carried out its first attack on German land targets, the water on the island of Sirte.
On the evening of May 10, the British Royal Air Force began to attack transport targets west of the Rhine, after Germany invaded the low-lying countries and attacked military targets in other parts of Germany after the Rotterdam explosion.
On September 9, 1940, RAF staff were instructed that, due to the "non-discriminatory" nature of the German bombing, if they could not find the designated target, they would attack the opportunity target instead of taking the bomb home.
On December, 15/16, the Royal Air Force carried out its first regional bombing attack (which destroyed 45% of the city of Manheim) in the official search of Coventry.
Manheim's explosion is often described as the first deliberate "terrorist explosion" in the war ".
In 1942, the target of the British attack is defined as: the main target is
Known as the "morale bombing" to weaken the will of the people to resist.
Following this directive, intensive bombing began in densely populated urban centres and working-class dormitories.
On May 30, 1942, the British Royal Air Force Bomber Command issued the first "1,000 bomber raid" when 1,046 aircraft bombed Cologne for thousands of years and dropped more than 2,000 tons of high explosives and Molotov bombs in the medieval town, and burned from beginning to end.
411 civilians and 85 combatants were killed and more than 130,000 had to leave the city.
Two more 1,000 bomb attacks were carried out in Essen and Bremen, but the effect was not as good as that of Cologne.
The effects of large-scale raids using bombshell and Molotov have caused a stir in some cities.
The most extreme example is the bombing of Hamburg (45,000 deaths) and the bombing of Cassel (10,000 deaths) during the operation of Gomorah, damstadt (12,500 deaths pforzheim (21,200 deaths) swinemuende (23,000 deaths) and Dresden (25,000 deaths ).
The allies also bombed urban areas in other countries, including occupied France (Caen) and major industrial cities in northern Italy, such as Milan and Turin.
Some cities were bombed at different times by the German air force and allies, such as Serbia in Yugoslavia and Budapest in Romania.
The German air force also bombed the Soviet city, destroyed Stalingrad in large air strikes at the beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad, and bombed Leningrad in the siege of 1943-1941.
Compared with the bombing of the British Royal Air Force, the Soviet bombing of the German city was limited (the damage caused by the Soviet Army was mainly caused by land cannons ).
The Soviet air force also bombed Budapest in Hungary.
In the Pacific war zone, Japan continues to bomb Chinese cities and other Asian cities such as Singapore, Yangon and Mandalay.
In the first few months of war with Western powers, Japan projected air power into distant cities like Colombo and Darwin. The U. S.
On the evening of March 9-10, 1945, the fire bombed Tokyo and killed more than 100,000 people in one of the most deadly conventional explosions in history, as the US Army Air Force (USAAF) called the "operation of the convention center ".
A few hours later, 100,000 people in Tokyo, including civilians, died from an explosion or fire, 325 after the explosion. S. B-
Attacks on the night of the 29 th.
The fleet consists of 279 bombers.
The explosion was to burn down wooden buildings, which actually caused a wind of 50 m/s, equivalent to a tornado.
A total of 381,300 bombs were used in the bombing, totaling 1783 tons.
S. Air Force, after successfully launching the "Conference House" raid, continued to attack other Japanese cities with inflammatory and high levels.
In order to smash the enemy's war industry, smash the enemy's civilian morale, contribute to the war efforts, and explode bombs.
From March to August 1945, the United StatesS.
Molotov bombs in 66 other cities in Japan have killed 350,000 civilians.
In addition, the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed 120,000 non-combatants, most of them civilians and combatants.
During the Cold War, the threat of nuclear weapons carried by bombers or ICBM destroying cities became the main tool of the "terror balance", preventing the United States and the Soviet Union from destroying with mutual assurance, the relationship between each other (see RBS \ "Express \".
During the Korean War, the United StatesS. -
The UN-led air force has bombed North and North Korean cities.
Occupied South Korea, including their respective capital cities.
In addition, nuclear weapons are planned for North Korea and the People's Republic of China.
From 1965 to 1968, during the Vietnam War, the U. S. Air Force carried out a rolling thunder campaign in the air.
At the beginning of the campaign, supply lines were cut off in rural areas in northern Vietnam, but gradually spread north across the country.
On 1966, restrictions on the bombing of the capital, Hanoi, and the country's largest port, Haiphong, were lifted and bombed by the US Air Force and Navy.
Bombing of the city center continues to be banned.
However, the Communist-occupied city of South Vietnam was bombed, including the former capital Hu during the 1968 Tet offensive.
On 1968, the Vietnamese air force bombed the disputed cities of South Vietnam, 1972 and 1975 respectively, while the Vietnamese people's air force attacked the southern cities (including the capital of Saigon) on 1975 ).
The Lebanese capital Beirut was attacked by Israeli aircraft during the siege of Beirut in 1982 and during the 2006 Lebanese war (using guided ammunition.
Israeli cities were bombed by Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian aircraft during the 1948 Arab-Arab period
War in Israelday war.
The bombings included attacks on Israel's largest cities, including Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and Haifa.
During the second uprising, Israel also carried out air strikes against Palestinian targets, including those against Hamas in Gaza.
In response to the uprising on March 1979, Khalq-
Army of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Bombing of Afghanistan for the third time
The largest city in Herat has caused massive damage, killing about 5,000 to 25,000 people.
Herat was bombed several times after the Soviet Union was involved in the civil war in Afghanistan.
After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United StatesS. -
Coalition forces strike City targets in Afghanistan with precision
Guide ammunition (or "smart bomb ").
The US government maintains that its policy is to combat only important combat targets while avoiding, as far as possible, "collateral damage" to civilians and non-combatants during the American War. S. -
Led to the war in Afghanistan.
Saddam Hussein's Iraq attacked civilian targets in Iranian cities during the "urban war" during the Iran-Iraq war in 1980, and Iran retaliated in kind (both sides quickly turned to ballistic missile attacks ).
On 1988, Iraqi aircraft also bombed the Iraqi city of Halabja with conventional and chemical weapons. in the largest air gas attack in history, more than 5,000 people were killed.
On 1988 Somali Air Force aircraft, in a campaign against the Somali National Movement in northern Somalia, heavy air strikes were carried out against the main Isaaq city, targeting the civilian Isaaqs.
Somali Air Force aircraft also fired civilians as they fled the air bombing.
Some 50,000 people were killed by shelling and aerial bombardment.
200,000 Iraqi and Levant civilians and the second and third largest cities in Somalia have been completely destroyed.
The Iraqi air force attacked Kuwait City on 1990 and bombed its own city in 1991 Iraqi uprising, attacking civilians with bombs --
Carrying helicopters (as part of a cease-fire agreement to end the Gulf War hostilities but not the war itself, the coalition banned the use of aircraft ). UN-
During the Desert Storm operation in 1991, the leading coalition aircraft attacked targets in Iraqi cities, including the capital Baghdad and the largest city in the south Basra.
During the Yugoslav war, the Yugoslav Air Force attacked the city of Croatia during the Croatian War of Independence in 1991, most notably the besieged city of Vukovar, destroyed by a series of explosive weapons, including air strikes and shelling.
In the Kosovo war of 1999, as part of Allied operationsS.
NATO warplanes bombed urban areas, including the Serbian capital, hundreds of non-combatants and fighters in Serbia and Kosovo. Post-
Soviet Russia uses most unguided ammunition in the air (including fuel-
(1994-1995, 1996 and 1999-2000), and bombing it with large artillery, killing thousands of people (an estimated 27,000 civilians are at 1994-
Only 1995 siege), including civilians during the First and Second Chechen Wars.
Although Russian pilots and soldiers were ordered to attack only designated targets due to lack of experience and lack of training, such as the presidential palace, Russian soldiers and pilots bombed and shelled random targets within the city.
In 2003, the United Nations still called Grozny the most devastated city on Earth.
In 2003 wars that invaded IraqS. -
The leading coalition aircraft bombed Iraq again, including shock and awe at the precise bombing of government targets in the city center.
Since then, coalition planes have attacked Iraqi insurgents, including urban areas such as Najaf, Fallujah, Basra and Baghdad.
There are often reports of civilian casualties, but it is often difficult for guerrillas and civilians to distinguish. Syrian MiG-
23 people bombed the city of Aleppo on July 24, 2012, the first air bombing in the Syrian civil war.
During the Hungarian Revolution in 1956, Budapest was attacked by the Soviet Union.
On 2008, during the war in Georgia, the cities of zhinwali and Gori were hit by Georgian and Russian aircraft.
In theory, air combat must comply with war laws and practices, including international humanitarian law, to protect victims of conflict and to avoid attacks on protected persons.
These restrictions on air combat are covered by the general law of war, because unlike land and sea wars --
Rules such as the 1907 Hague Convention and the first additional protocol to the Geneva Conventions specifically cover these rules, which contain relevant restrictions, prohibitions and guidelines --
There is no treaty dedicated to air combat.
For the sake of legality, air operations must adhere to the principles of humanitarian law: military necessity, distinction and sufficiency: attacks or operations must help defeat the enemy;
This must be an attack on legitimate military targets, and the damage done to civilians or civilian property must be proportional to the specific and direct military advantage expected, not excessive.
Air Interception (AI), also known as Deep Space Support (DAS), is to delay the use of preventive aircraft attacks against enemy targets that are not directly threatened, destroying or hindering the enemy's engagement with friendly forces.
This is the core capability of almost all military air forces, which have been in conflict since World War I.
Depending on the objectives of the action, there is often a difference between tactical and strategic air interceptions.
Typical targets for tactical interceptions are intended to quickly and locally influence events, such as the direct destruction of troops or supplies on the way to an active theater.
While strategic objectives are often broader and longer-term
There are fewer direct attacks on enemy combat capabilities, but instead focus on infrastructure, logistics and other supporting assets.
The term deep space support is related to close air support and indicates the difference between their respective targets.
As the name implies, close air support is aimed at targets near the friendly ground forces, because of the closely coordinated air-
Direct support for active contact with the enemy.
Deep space support or air interception is carried out on the basis of active operations, more based on strategic planning, rather than directly coordinating with ground forces.
Although air interception is more strategic than close air support, it should not be confused with strategic bombing that is not related to ground operations.
In World War I, the goal of air interception was to isolate the battlefield by sweeping and bombing the enemy's supply lines.
The fleet of railways, bridges and trucks is the most popular target.
Due to the original state of aircraft and weapons technology, as well as the underdeveloped nature of air Theory and tactics, the utility of air interception missions in World War I was limited.
However, the potential of air interception was clearly recognized, and during World War II, air interception once again became a major task for the Air Force.
Although air interception operations have been carried out in all war zones, the most extensive and thorough analysis is the air interception operations between the United States and the United Kingdom and the Axis states, especially English.
Specifically, the Allied forces launched massive air interceptions in the battles of North Africa, Italy and Normandy.
The sites of these three battles are significantly different in terms of weather, terrain, enemy supply and transport infrastructure, and intelligence supply about the enemy.
Due to these differences, the results of air interception are also different.
The biggest success was in the desert of North Africa, where Axis forces also relied heavily on fragile and visible sea fleets crossing the Mediterranean.
In contrast, the battle of Italy is characterized by mountainous terrain, harsh weather conditions and shortened German supply lines.
The different results of the two movements have taught different lessons to air planners.
Since World War II, air interception has continued to play an important role in the conflict.
In modern conflicts such as South Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, and in NATO's 1999 bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, it was widely used, as well as wars between Israel and Arab states in the Middle East.
Different local conditions and political restrictions have once again had a huge impact on the way and the degree of success of air interception.
In Vietnam, for example, the strategic interception action known as Rolling Thunder (1965-1968) was largely unsuccessful.
Dense jungle terrain, lack of intelligence about enemy actions, and political restrictions on the target of attacks have made the United StatesS.
The efforts to intercept the air were largely futile.
Supplies and reinforcements from North Vietnam to South Vietnam forces have not been seriously affected.
By contrast, coalition air interception operations in the 1991 Gulf War have been very successful in isolating the front lines --
The Iraqi forces were discharged from the rear base.
Most of the intelligence comes from space and air sensors, giving an unusually clear picture of the enemy's position, and the open desert terrain also promotes air interception operations.
In assessing air interception efforts during the 20 th century, several factors affecting success can be identified.
Air superiority allows for a more thorough identification and attack of the enemy's strength and supplies, while also exposing the aircraft to less risk.
Intelligence about enemy deployments, actions, inventory and intentions is critical.
For example, during the North African Campaign during World War II, intelligence sources provided the Allies with a clear picture of the Mediterranean Axis shipping.
In contrast, in Vietnam, the United States has a very poor understanding of Vietnam's Republic and North Vietnam's activities.
Weather and terrain will have a significant impact on the success or failure of air interception.
One factor included here is the ability to conduct air interception at night or in marginal weather;
Conditions to assist in the secret delivery of troops and supplies.
Air planners must have realistic targets.
It is almost impossible to completely isolate the battlefield.
Some things will always pass, and this number may be enough to maintain the enemy.
The stationary enemy consumes very little resources, and the target is very small.
In contrast, if the enemy is attacked by friendly ground forces and rushed out of their defensive positions, they will consume more resources, especially fuel and ammunition.
Offensive counterattack
Air (OCA) is a military term used to suppress the enemy's military Air force, mainly through ground attacks against enemy Air bases, disabling or destroying parked aircraft, runways, fuel facilities, aviation infrastructure such as hangar and air traffic control facilities. Air-to-
Air combat by fighter jets for the purpose of clearing enemy fighter airspace can also be offensive
But they are considered a relatively slow and expensive way to achieve the ultimate goal --
Air advantage
Ground ammunition like a bomb is usually cheaper than more complex air. to-
Air ammunition and a ground ammunition can destroy or disable multiple aircraft in a very short period of time, while aircraft that have already flown usually have to shoot down one at a time.
Enemy aircraft that have already flown also represent an imminent threat because they can usually fight back, so destroy them before taking off, minimizing the risk of friendly aircraft.
The opposite term is defensive anti-air, mainly to protect territory, persons and/or materials from the intrusion of enemy aircraft, usually ground-based surface-to-
Missiles and anti-missiles
It is also air patrol through air defense operations.
Offensive counterattack
Air strikes have been used since World War I.
Teishin shoutan and Giretsu Kuteitai carried out two Asian-Austrian Council attacks against B29s in the Pacific war zone.
To some extent, the most successful ya'ao council mission to date is the "focus action", which is Israel's offensive to launch the six-day war of 1967, when Heyl Ha \ 'avir destroyed most of the air power in Egypt, Syria and Jordan, mainly on the ground, a total of about 600 aircraft were destroyed by 200 aircraft.
However, in the case of the large number of destroyed aircraft, Barbarossa saw some 3-
In total, 4,000 Russian aircraft were destroyed.
Other successful attacks include US counterattacks.
On 1950 and 1953, France and Britain launched air strikes during the Suez crisis and many other regions.
However, there are also some obvious failures, such as the Genghis Khan operation launched by Pakistan during India.
The war in Pakistan in 1971 and Iraq's attacks on Iran
Although the mandate of the Asian-Austrian Council is usually carried out through air strikes, it is not limited to air operations.
Teishin Shudan and Giretsu Kuteitai commandos conducted two high-profile OCA raids during World War II, as did the British remote desert team.
During the Vietnam War, the Vietnamese Communist Party successfully destroyed some American planes with mortars. Recently, a Taliban raid in Afghanistan destroyed eight AV-8B Harriers.
In the 1950 s, the Cold War strategy of NATO and the Warsaw Treaty required the Asian-Austrian Council to use tactical nuclear weapons, but in the medium term
1960, the new policy of "proportional response" has brought about a return to traditional tactics.
Starting shortly before the Six-Day War, special weapons such as Blu-ray have been developed for the destruction of the runway
107 Durandalrunway bomb.
Continued use of various such weapons, particularly the hunting JP233 ammunition used by the Royal Air Force Panavia Tornado aircraft during the 1991 Gulf War.
The Cold War was a geopolitical tension between the eastern group (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and the Western group (the United States) after World War II, its NATO allies and others ).
Historians do not agree exactly on dates, but a common time frame is from 1947 to Truman doctrine (United States of America)S.
Foreign policy committed to aid countries threatened by Soviet expansionism has been announced, the year the Soviet Union collapsed was 1991.
Use the word "cold" because there is no big-
Although there was a major regional war, known as the proxy war, the two sides were directly involved in the conflict with the support of both sides.
The Cold War divided the temporary wartime alliance with Nazi Germany, making the Soviet Union and the United States two super powers with profound economic and political differences.
The Soviet Union is a Marxist-Leninist country led by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the Communist Party is led by a leader. Over time, his title is also different. a small committee called the Political Bureau
The party controlled the news, the army, the economy and many organizations.
It also controls other countries of the Eastern bloc and has funded Communist parties around the world, sometimes competing with Communist China, especially after China
1960 of Soviet division
Western countries are firmly opposed to democracy and capitalism and have free news and independent organizations.
A small neutral group
Alliance movement;
It seeks to establish good relations with both sides.
The two superpowers have never done anything directly.
Armed battles of scale, but they are fully armed and ready for all possible-
End the nuclear war.
Each side has a nuclear strategy to stop the other side from attacking on the grounds that such an attack would cause the attacker to be completely destroyed: A Theory of mutual assurance of Destruction (MAD ).
In addition to the development of nuclear arsenal and the deployment of conventional military forces, the global agency War and psychological warfare express the struggle for dominance, large-scale publicity activities and espionage activities, and competition in sports events, and technology competitions such as the space race.
The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of World War II in 1945.
The Soviet Union consolidated its control over Eastern European countries, while the United States began to adopt a global containment strategy, challenging the Soviet Union's strength and providing military and financial assistance to Western European countries (for example, supporting the-
The communist side of the Greek Civil War) and the creation of the Northern Alliance.
The Berlin Blockade (1948-49) was the first major crisis of the Cold War era.
With the victory of the Communist Party in China's civil war and the outbreak of the Korean War (1950-53 years), the conflict expanded.
The Soviet Union and the United States competed for influence in Latin America, as well as in Africa and Asia.
Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution in 1956 was stopped by the Soviet Union.
Expansion and escalation have triggered more crises, such as the Suez Crisis (1956), the Berlin crisis in 1961 and the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.
After the Cuban missile crisis, China began a new phase.
The division of the Soviet Union complicated relations within communism, while American allies, especially France, showed greater operational independence.
The Soviet Union crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization plan in the Czech Republic, and the Vietnam War (1955-75) ended with the failure of the United States.
The support of the Republic of Vietnam has prompted further adjustments.
At the age of 1970, in order to establish a more stable and predictable international system, the two sides were interested in facilitating a period of relaxation, strategic arms restriction negotiations and the United States will use relations with China as a strategic check and balance with the Soviet Union.
With the beginning of the sua war in 1979, the easing collapsed at the end of the decade.
In early 1980, another period of escalating tensions, the Soviet Union shot down Flight 007 (1983) of Korean Airlines and NATO military exercises (1983 ).
At a time when the communist country was already suffering from economic stagnation, the United States increased diplomatic, military and economic pressure on the Soviet Union. In the mid-
In the 1980 s, the new leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail gomachev, introduced reform and opening up ("restructuring", 1987) and reform and opening up ("opening up", c.
1985) the Soviet Union's participation in Afghanistan was ended.
Eastern Europe, particularly Poland, is under increasing pressure for national independence.
At the same time, gorbacev refused to use Soviet forces to support the crumbling Warsaw Treaty regime, as in the past.
As a result of 1989, Peace (except the Romanian Revolution) overthrew the revolutionary wave of all communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe.
The Soviet Communist Party itself lost control and was banned after an attempted coup in August 1991.
This in turn led to the formal collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, and led to the collapse of the Communist regime in Mongolia, Cambodia and other countries in southern Yemen.
The United States remains the only superpower in the world.
The Cold War and its events left a major legacy.
It is often mentioned in popular culture, especially in the media with the theme of espionage. g.
The James Bond film series, which is very successful in the world, and the threat of nuclear war.
At the end of World War II, British writer George Orwell used the cold war as a general term in his article "you and the atomic bomb", which was published in the British Tribune on October 19, 1945.
Orwell, thinking about a world in the shadow of a nuclear war threat, watching James Burnham's prediction of a polarized world, wrote: Looking at the whole world, the trend for decades is not towards anarchy, but toward the revival of slavery. . . .
James Burnham's theory has been discussed a lot, but few people have considered its ideological meaning --
This is the world.
Views, beliefs and social structures may prevail in an unconquerable country and are in a permanent "Cold War" state with neighbouring countries.
Orwell wrote in The Observer in March 10, 1946, "after the Moscow conference in last December, Russia began a" cold war "on Britain and the British Empire ".
\ "First use of terms describing a particular post
In April 16, 1947, the war geopolitical confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States appeared in a speech by Democratic presidential influential adviser Bernard Baruch.
In his speech, reporter Herbert Bayard swop declared, "Let us not be deceived: we are in the cold war today.
Newspaper columnist Walter Lipman gave the word "extensive currency" in his book The Cold War;
When asked about the source of the term in 1947, Lippmann went back to a French term from la Guerre froide in the 1930 s.
Historians disagree on the starting point of the Cold War.
While most historians trace its origins back to the post-World War II period, others believe it began with the Russian October revolution when Bolshevik came to power in 1917.
Lenin said that the new Soviet Union was "surrounded by hostile capitalism" and that he believed that diplomacy was a weapon that should be used to maintain the division of the Soviet enemy, starting with the establishment of the Communist International, communist International called for revolutionary unrest abroad.
His successor, Joseph Stalin, considered the Soviet Union a "socialist island" and said it must be seen that "the present siege of capitalism was replaced by a Socialist siege.
"The events before World War II show that, in addition to the universal philosophical challenge posed by communism to capitalism, the mutual distrust and suspicion between the Great West and the Soviet Union.
With Western support
During the Russian Civil War, the Soviet-sponsored 1926 British strikes broke down Britain's relations with the Soviet Union, stalin's 1927 Declaration of peaceful coexistence with capitalist countries "went backwards to the past," and in 1928 swing trials there were conspiracies to accuse the British plan --and French-
Leading the coup, the United States did not recognize the Soviet Union until 1933, when Stalinist Moscow tried a big purge, accusing Britain, France, Japan and Nazi German espionage.
However, between the two world wars, the United States and the Soviet Union were usually isolists.
The Soviet Union initially signed a non-
Aggression treaty with Nazi Germany in August 1939
But in June 1941 the German invasion of the Soviet Union, after the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the Soviet Union and allies formed a convenient alliance.
The United Kingdom and the United States signed a formal alliance and reached an informal agreement.
During the war, the United States provided loans to Britain and the Soviet UnionLease Program.
However, Stalin remains highly skeptical, arguing that Britain and the United States colluded to ensure that the Soviet Union was the first to bear the brunt of the battle with Nazi Germany.
According to this view, Western allies deliberately postponed the second counter
The German front line, in order to step in at the last minute and develop a peaceful solution.
Therefore, the Soviet Union's view of the West left a strong stream of tension and hostility between its allies.
At the end of the war, allies disagree on how the European map should look and how the borders should be drawn.
The two sides have different ideas on establishing and maintaining postal services. war security.
Western allies want to establish a security system in which democratic governments can be established as widely as possible, allowing countries to settle their differences peacefully through international organizations.
The Soviet Union tried to control the internal affairs of the countries bordering it.
During the war, Stalin set up special training centers for Communists from different countries, so that they can establish secret police forces loyal to Moscow immediately after the Red Army controlled Moscow.
Soviet agents controlled the media, especially the radio;
They promptly harassed and banned all independent civic institutions, from youth groups to schools, churches and opposing political parties.
Stalin also sought to maintain peace with Britain and the United States, hoping to focus on domestic reconstruction and economic growth.
Western allies after their new-war world.
Roosevelt's goal-to achieve military victory in Europe and Asia, to realize the United States's global economic hegemony over the British Empire, and the establishment of the World Peace organization is more global than Churchill's, churchill's main goal is to ensure control over the Mediterranean Sea, to ensure the survival of the British Empire, as a buffer between the Soviet Union and Britain, the independence of central and eastern European countries.
In the eyes of Americans, Stalin seems to be a potential ally to achieve their goals, and in Britain, Stalin seems to be the biggest threat to achieving their agenda.
As the Soviet Union had occupied much of Central and Eastern Europe, Stalin was in a good position, and two western leaders competed for his interests.
The disagreement between Roosevelt and Churchill led to several separate agreements with the Soviet Union.
On October 1944, Churchill traveled to Moscow and agreed to divide the Balkans into their respective spheres of influence. Roosevelt signed a separate agreement with Stalin on Asia and refused to support Churchill on Poland and compensation.
Further negotiations on post-joint negotiations
The balance of war took place at the Yalta meeting on February 1945, although the meeting was not followed.
The war in Europe is resolved.
President Roosevelt died in April 1945 and was replaced by Harry S.
Truman, who did not trust Stalin, sought advice from a group of foreign policy intellectuals.
Churchill and Truman, among other things, opposed the Soviet Union's decision to support the Lublin government.
Competitors of the Polish governmentin-
An exile in London that broke ties with the Soviet Union.
After the Allied victory in May 1945, the Soviet Union actually occupied Central and Eastern Europe, while the powerful American and Western allies remained in Western Europe.
The occupied areas were established in Germany and Austria, France, the UK, the Soviet Union and the United States, and a loose framework was established for the divided four people --power control.
1945 League meeting in San Francisco
The United Nations (UN), a country that maintains world peace, but the ability of individual members to use the veto power effectively paralyzes the law enforcement capacity of its Security Council.
As a result, the United Nations has essentially become an inactive forum for the exchange of political rhetoric, which the Soviet Union regards almost exclusively as a propaganda forum.
The Potsdam Conference began in late July after Germany's surrender, during which Germany and other Central and Eastern European countries had serious differences in their future development.
In addition, the growing resentment and militant language of the participants confirmed their doubts about each other's hostile intentions and consolidated their position.
At the meeting, Truman told Stalin that the United States had powerful new weapons.
Stalin knew that the Americans were working on the atomic bomb, and, given that the Soviet Union's own rival plan was in place, he calmly responded to the news.
The Soviet leader said he was pleased with the news and expressed his desire to use the weapon against Japan.
A week after the Potsdam Conference, the United States bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Shortly after the attack, when Truman provided the Soviet Union with little practical influence in occupied Japan, Stalin protested to American officials.
At the opening stage of the Second World War, the Soviet Union became the Soviet Socialist Republic by invading and annexing several countries, laying the foundation for the Eastern Bloc and reaching an agreement with Nazi Germany in the Molotov-lippenelope treaty.
These countries include Eastern Poland (incorporating two different SSRs), Latvia (becoming a Latvian SSR), Estonia (becoming an Estonian SSR), Lithuania (becoming a Lithuanian SSR), and part of Eastern Finland.
Finnish SSR) and Eastern Romania (becoming Moldovan SSR ). The Soviet-
The style regime that emerged in the group not only replicated the Soviet command economy, but also adopted the brutal methods adopted by Stalin and the Soviet secret police to suppress the real and potential opposition.
In Asia, the Red Army occupied Manchuria in the last month of the war and continued to occupy large North Korean territory north of the 38 th.
As part of consolidating Stalin's control over the Eastern Bloc, the people's internal affairs committee, led by Lavrentiy Beriya, supervised the Soviet Union-
The group was supposed to crush the style of the anti-secret police system
Communist resistance
When the EU showed the slightest signs of independence, Stalin's strategy and domestic front
Opponents of the war: they were deprived of power, tried, imprisoned and executed in some cases.
British Prime Minister Churchill is concerned that given the sheer size of Soviet troops deployed in Europe at the end of the war and the view that Soviet leader Stalin was unreliable, the Soviet Union threatened Western Europe.
George F, February 1946.
Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow helped to clarify the United States government's increasingly tough stance on the Soviet Union and became the strategic basis of the Cold War during the Soviet Union.
On September, the Soviet Union produced a Novikov telegram from the Soviet ambassador to the United States, but entrusted and "cooperated"
Wrote "Ralph Molotov;
It portrays the United States under the control of monopoly capitalists who are building military capabilities "to be prepared to win world hegemony in a new war ".
James F. , September 6, 1946.
Byrnes spoke in Germany denying the Morgenthau plan (a proposal for zoning and cancellation of the plan)
And warned the Soviet Union that the United States intended to maintain its military presence in Europe indefinitely.
As Byrnes admitted a month later, "the core of our project is to win the German people. . .
This is an ideological battle between the United States and Russia. . .
A few weeks after the launch, former British Prime Minister Churchill delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton, Missouri.
Speech calls for
S. alliance against the Soviet Union, he accused the Soviet Union from Stettin in the Baltic Sea to Trieste in the Adriatic Sea to establish an "iron curtain ".
Just a week later, in March 13, Stalin responded positively to the speech, saying that Churchill could be compared with Hitler because he advocated British racial superiority.
In order to satisfy their desire for world rule, such a declaration is "a war call for the United States"S. S. R.
The Soviet leader also denied allegations that the Soviet Union was exerting increasing control over the country under its jurisdiction.
He believes that "it is not surprising that the Soviet Union is anxious for future security, trying to ensure that governments loyal to the Soviet Union should exist in these countries ".
In September 1947, the Soviet Union created the Cominform with the aim of promoting orthodox ideas in the international communist movement and strengthening political control over Soviet satellites through the coordination of the Communist Party of the Eastern group.
In June, the Tito-Stalin split forced its members to expel Yugoslavia, which is still communist, but did not
Align position.
1947. Harry S. President of the United States.
Truman's advisers, citing Stalin's efforts, urged him to take immediate measures against the influence of the Soviet Union.
War chaos and collapse) undermine the United States by encouraging competition between capitalists who might trigger another war.
In February 1947, the British government announced that it would no longer be able to fund the military regime of the Greek monarch in the civil war with communism. led insurgents.
The US government's response to the announcement was to take containment measures aimed at stopping the spread of communism.
Truman made a speech calling for $0. 4 billion to intervene in the war, and published the Truman Doctrine, which defined the conflict as a competition between the free people and the totalitarian regime.
Despite the help of Yugoslavia by Josip Broz Tito, US policy makers accused the Soviet Union of plotting against the Greek royalist to expand Soviet influence.
Truman's clarification marked the beginning of the United States bipartisan consensus on defense and foreign policy, and the consensus between the Republican and Democratic parties focused on containment and deterrence, which weakened during and after the Vietnam War, but it finally persisted.
The European moderate and conservative and social democrats supported the Western Union almost without conditions, while the European and American communist parties were paid by the KGB and participated in its intelligence operations, despite objections that began after 1956, but stick to the Moscow route.
Other criticism of consensus politics comes from the opposition
Vietnam War activists, nuclear disarmament campaign and-
Nuclear movement.
At the beginning of 1947, France, Britain and the United States tried to reach a plan with the Soviet Union to envision an economic self but failed
Sufficient Germany, including detailed accounting of factories, goods and infrastructure that the Soviet Union has dismantled.
In June 1947, according to Truman Doctrine, the United States issued the Marshall plan, promising economic assistance to all European countries, including the Soviet Union, who are willing to participate.
Under this project, President Harry
In April 3, 1948, the United States government donated $13 billion (equivalent to $189) to Western European countries ).
2016, 39 billion) rebuilding the European economy.
Later, the project led to the establishment of the European Economic Cooperation Organization. operation.
The purpose of the plan is to rebuild Europe's democratic and economic system and to respond to what is perceived as a threat to the balance of power in Europe, such as the Communist party taking control through revolution or elections.
The plan also noted that Europe's prosperity depends on Germany's economic recovery.
[69] A month later, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, setting up a unified Department of Defense, the CIA and the National Security Council.
These will become the main bureaucracy of American policy during the Cold War.
Stalin believes that economic integration with the West will free eastern European countries from Soviet control, while the United States is trying to buyUS re-
An alliance of Europe.
As a result, Stalin blocked Eastern European countries from receiving the Marshall Plan.
The Soviet alternative to the Marshall plan allegedly involved Soviet subsidies and trade with Central and Eastern Europe, which was later referred to as the Molotov Plan (later identified as the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance in January 1949 ).
Stalin was also afraid of the rebuilding of Germany.
He's after one.
War Germany does not include the ability to rearm or pose any threat to the Soviet Union.
Refer to military aviation in the free encyclopedia Wikipedia.
Retrieved from: Aversa, R. , R. V. V. Petrescu, A. Apicella and F. I. T.
Petresscu, Teca. Nano-
Diamond mixing materials for structural biomedical applications. Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, B. Akash, R. B. Bucinell and J. M. Corchado et al. , 2017b.
Movement and force of a new forging manipulator. Am. J. Applied Sci. , 14: 60-80. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, A. Apicella, I. T. F. Petrescu and J. K. Calautit et al. , 2017c.
Something about V engine design. Am. J. Applied Sci. , 14: 34-52. Aversa, R. , D. Parcesepe, R. V. V. Petrescu, F. Berto and G. Chen et al. , 2017d.
Processing capacity of large metal glass. Am. J. Applied Sci. , 14: 294-301. Aversa, R. , R. V. V. Petrescu, B. Akash, R. B. Bucinell and J. M. Corchado et al. , 2017e.
Some things about thermal motor balance. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 10: 200. 217. DOI: 10. 3844/ajeassp. 2017. 200. 217 Aversa, R. , F. I. T. Petrescu, R. V. Petrescu and A.
Apicella, 206A.
Bionic FEA bone modeling developed by customized hybrid biological prosthesis. Am. J. Applied Sci. , 13: 1060-1067. DOI: 10. 3844/ajassp. 2016. 1060. 1067 Aversa, R. , D. Parcesepe, R. V. Petrescu, G. Chen and F. I. T. Petrescu et al. , 2016b.
Morphological defects caused by glass-like amorphous metal injection molding. Am. J. Applied Sci. , 13: 1476-1482. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, F. I. T. Petrescu and A.
Apicella, 206C. Smart-
Factory: optimization and process control of compound centrifugal pipes. Am. J. Applied Sci. , 13: 1330-1341. Aversa, R. , F. Tamburrino, R. V. Petrescu, F. I. T. Petrescu and M. Artur et al. , 2016d.
Shape memory effect machines inspired by muscle-driven biomechanics, such as NiTi alloys acting. Am. J. Applied Sci. , 13: 1264-1271. Aversa, R. , E. M. Buzea, R. V. Petrescu, A. Apicella and M. Neacsa et al. , 2016e.
A mechanical and electrical integration system that can determine the concentration of carrots is presented. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 1106-1111. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, R. Sorrentino, F. I. T. Petrescu and A.
Apicella, 206f. Hybrid ceramo-
Polymer nano-composite materials for the design and preparation of bionic support. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 1096-1105. Aversa, R. , V. Perrotta, R. V. Petrescu, C. Misiano and F. I. T. Petrescu et al. , 2016g.
From structure color to super
Transparent protective coating: ti02 and si02 nanoparticles assisted by ion plating plasmaFilm deposition. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 1037-1045. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, F. I. T. Petrescu and A.
Apicella, 2016 h, in sustainable product development, imitation and evolutionary design drive innovation. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 1027-1036. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, A. Apicella and F. I. T.
Petrescu, 206i.
The mitochondrial is a miniature robot. a review. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 991-1002. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, A. Apicella and F. I. T.
Petrescu, 2028.
We're addicted to vitamin C and E. A review. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 1003-1018. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, A. Apicella and F. I. T.
Petrescu, 2016 k.
Physiological body fluid and swelling behavior of hydrophilic biocompatible hybrid neuroceramics
Polymer materials. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 962-972. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, A. Apicella and F. I. T.
Petrescu, 206L.
People can slow down aging through antioxidants. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 1112-1126. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, A. Apicella and F. I. T.
Petrescu, 2016 m
About Homeopathy or similar therapy. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 1164-1172. Aversa, R. , R. V. Petrescu, A. Apicella and F. I. T.
Petrescu, 206n.
Basic elements of life. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 1189-1197. Aversa, R. , F. I. T. Petrescu, R. V. Petrescu and A.
Apicella, 206o.
Bone beam prosthesis with flexible handle. Am. J. Eng. Applied Sci. , 9: 1213-1221. Mirsayar, M. M. , V. A. Joneidi, R. V. V. Petrescu, F. I. T. Petrescu and F.
Berto, an extended MTSN criterion for fracture analysis of 2017 soda lime glass. Eng.
Fracture Mechanics: 50-17859. DOI: 10. 1016/j. engfracmech. 2017. 04. Petrescu, RCCL 18V. and F. I.
Petrescu, 203A.
Lockheed Martin1st Edn.
, Create space, pp: 114Petrescu, R. V. and F. I.
Petrescu, 203B. Northrop. 1st Edn.
, CreateSpace, pp: 96. Petrescu, R. V. and F. I.
Petrescu, 203C.
I color the history of aviation or the new plane. 1st Edn.
, Create space, pp: 292Petrescu, F. I. and R. V. Petrescu, 2012.
New aircraft II. 1st Edn.
Books on Demand, pp: 138. Petrescu, F. I. and R. V. Petrescu, 2011.
Memories of flight1st Edn.
, Create space, pp: 652Petrescu, F. I. T. , 2009. New aircraft.
Record of 3rd International Conference on Computational Mechanics, October. 29-
30, Bradford, Romania. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
GEINTEC-Otto motor power
Geopark, 6 (3): 3392-3406. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, 206B, GEINTEC-dynamic film of structure
Geopark, 6 (2): 3143-3154. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, 204A Cam gear dynamics in the classic release journal of independent management and production, 5 (1): 166-185. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
Efficient gear synthesis to avoid interference, Independent Journal of Management and production, 5 (2): 275-298. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu R. V.
, ENGEVISTA, 16 (4): gear design 33-204c328. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
International Review of mechanical engineering, 204D balanced Otto engine 8 (3): 473-480. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, Equation of machine to classical distribution, International Mechanical Engineering Review 8 (2): 309-316. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, Internal combustion engine force, International Modeling and Simulation Review 7 (1): 206-212. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, Determination of yield of 2014G internal combustion engine, International Review of mechanical engineering 8 (1): 62-67. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
Dynamic synthesis of 2014 h Cam
Khwarizmi Journal of Engineering, 10 (1): 1-23. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu R. V.
, Dynamic synthesis of 203a rotating cam and Pan tappet with roller, ENGEVISTA 15 (3): 325-332. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, 203B high efficiency Cam, International Review of mechanical engineering 7 (4): 599-606. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
Algorithm for setting dynamic parameters of classical allocation mechanism, International Modeling and Simulation Review 6 (5B): 1637-1641. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, Dynamic synthesis, modeling and simulation of rotating cam and Pan tappet with roller International Review 6 (2B): 600-607. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, Force and efficiency of 203E Cam, International Review of mechanical engineering 7 (3): 507-511. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, 202a echilibarea motoarelor termice, creating space, publisher, United States, November 2012, ISBN 978-1-4811-2948-
Page 0,40, Romanian version. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, Accurate, space creation, publisher, USA, November 2012, ISBN 978-1-4810-8316-
4, 88 pages, English version. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, 202C moto are termice, creating a space publisher, USA, October 2012, ISBN 978-1-4802-0488-
Romanian version, page 164. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, 201A Dinamica mecanismelor de distributie, creating space, publisher, United States, December 2011, ISBN 978-1-4680-5265-
Page 188, Romanian. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, Trenuri planetare, creating a space publisher, USA, December 2011, ISBN 978-1-4680-3041-
Page 204, Romanian. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu, R. V.
, 201C Gear solution, creating a space Publisher, ISBN 978, November 2011-1-4679-8764-
6, 72 pages, English version. Petrescu, F. I. and R. V. Petrescu, 2005.
Contribution to Cam dynamics.
Minutes of the ninth International Symposium on machine and mechanism theory of IFToMM, (tmm '05), Budapest, capital of Romania, pp: 123-128. Petrescu, F. and R. Petrescu, 1995.
Contributi la sinteza mecanismelor de distributie ale motoarelor cu ardere intern GmbH.
Minutes of ESFA meeting, (esfa'95), Bucuresti, pp: 257-264. Petrescu, FIT.
Geometric synthesis of distribution mechanism, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 8 (1): 63-81. DOI: 10. 3844/ajeassp. 2015. 63.
81 Petrescu, FIT.
Machine equations of motion on Internal combustion engines, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 8 (1): 127-137. DOI: 10. 3844/ajeassp. 2015. 127. 137 Petrescu, F. I.
, 202b Teoria melor-Curs si aplicatii (editia a doua), creating a space publisher, USA, September 2012, ISBN 978-1-4792-9362-
Page 9,284, Romanian version, tujing: 10. 13140/RG. 2. 1. 2917.
1926 Petrescu, F. I. , 2008.
Theoretical and applied contributions on the dynamics of plane mechanisms with excellent joints.
Doctoral thesis of Bucharest University of Technology. Petrescu, FIT. ; Calautit, JK. ; Mirsayar, M. ; Marinkovic, D. ;
2015 structural dynamics of distribution mechanisms with swing tappets, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 8 (4): 589-601. DOI: 10. 3844/ajeassp. 2015. 589.
Petrescu, FIT 601. ; Calautit, JK. ;
2016 about nano fusion and dynamic fusion, American Journal of Applied Science, 13 (3): 261-266. Petrescu, R. V. V. , R. Aversa, A. Apicella, F. Berto and S. Li et al. , 2016a.
Protect the ecosystem through green energy. Am. J. Applied Sci. , 13: 1027-1032. DOI: 10. 3844/ajassp. 2016. 1027.
1032 Petrescu, F. I. T. , A. Apicella, R. V. V. Petrescu, S. P. Kozaitis and R. B. Bucinell et al. , 2016b.
Protect the environment through nuclear energy. Am. J. Applied Sci. , 13: 941-946. Petrescu, F. I. , Petrescu R. V.
, 2017 speed and acceleration of the 3R robot, ENGEVISTA 19 (1): 202-216. Petrescu, RV. Petrescu, FIT. , Aversa, R. , Apicella, A.
, 2017 Nano Energy, Engevista, 19 (2): 267-292. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, 2017, Geintec, 7 (1): 3722-3743. Aversa, R. , Petrescu, RV. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, 2017 underwater, Online Journal of Biological Sciences, 17 (2): 70-87. Aversa, R. , Petrescu, RV. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, Fit. , 2017 Nano-
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 13 (1): 34-Diamond mixing materials for structural biomedical applications41. Syed, J. , Dharrab, AA. , Zafa, MS. , Khand, E. , Aversa, R. , Petrescu, RV. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, 2017 effect of cured light type and dyeing medium on discoloration stability of dental repair composite materials, Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 13 (1): 42-50. Aversa, R. , Petrescu, RV. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Chen, G. , Li, S. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, Motion and force of 2017 new model forging manipulator, American Journal of Applied Science 14 (1): 60-80. Aversa, R. , Petrescu, RV. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT. , Calautit, JK. , Mirsayar, MM. , Bucinell, R. , Berto, F. , Akash, B.
, 2017 some content about V engine design, American Journal of Applied Science 14 (1): 34-52. Aversa, R. , Parcesepe, D. , Petrescu, RV. , Berto, F. , Chen, G. Petrescu, FIT. Tambrino, F. , Apicella, A.
Processing performance of 2017 large metal Glass, American Journal of Applied Science 14 (2): 294-301. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Calautit, JK. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, 2017 output thermal engine internal combustion engine, Engineering and Applied Science Month (month) in the United States: 243-251. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, Speed and acceleration 2017 for 3R mechatronics system, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science 10 (1): 252-263. Berto, F. , Gagani, A. , Petrescu, RV. Petrescu, FIT.
, 2017 review of Fatigue Strength of load-bearing shear welded joints, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science 10 (1): 1-12. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, 2017 the physical structure of the proposed person n-
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science 10 (1): 279-291. Aversa, R. , Petrescu, RV. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Chen, G. , Li, S. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, 2017 some content about thermal motor balance, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science 10 (1): 200-217. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, Reverse motion of 2017 humanoid robot, Triangle method, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 10 (2): 394-411. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Calautit, JK. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, 2017 force on internal combustion engine, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10 (2): 382-393. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT. , 2017 Gears-
Part 1, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 10 (2): 457-472. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT. , 2017 Gears-
Part II, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 10 (2): 473-483. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT. , 2017 Cam-
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 10 (2): 491-505. Aversa, R. , Petrescu, RV. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, Dynamic model of 2017 gears, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10 (2): 484-490. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Kosaitis, S. , Abu-Lebdeh, T. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
2017 classic issue edition the American engineering and application science journal of 10 (2): 551-567. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Akash, B. , Bucinell, R. , Corchado, J. , Berto, F. , Mirsayar, MM. , Kosaitis, S. , Abu-Lebdeh, T. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
Non-Test 2017
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 10 (2): 568-583. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Li, S. , Mirsayar, MM. , Bucinell, R. , Kosaitis, S. , Abu-Lebdeh, T. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
, 2017 electronic size, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 10 (2): 584-602. Petrescu, RV. , Aversa, R. , Kozaitis, S. , Apicella, A. Petrescu, FIT.
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 2017 Deuteron Dimensions, 10 (3 ). Petrescu RV. , Aversa R. , Apicella A. , Petrescu FIT.
, 2017, Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, transportation engineering, 10 (3 ). Petrescu RV. , Aversa R. , Kozaitis S. , Apicella A. , Petrescu FIT.
2017 American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science 10 (3). some proposed solutions for achieving nuclear fusion. Petrescu RV. , Aversa R. , Kozaitis S. , Apicella A. , Petrescu FIT.
Some of the basic reactions in 2017 nuclear fusion, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 10 (3 ).
Petrescu, Victoria
Aversa, Lovell; Akash, Bilal;
Ronald BucknellCorchado, Juan; Berto, Filippo;
Mill Millard in Mill, Zaya.
Petrescu, Florian Ion tibelu;
Modern equipment for aerospace
Review 1 (1) of the Journal of aircraft and spacecraft technology ).
Petrescu, Victoria
Aversa, Lovell; Akash, Bilal;
Ronald BucknellCorchado, Juan; Berto, Filippo;
Mill Millard in Mill, Zaya.
Petrescu, Florian Ion tibelu;
Modern equipment for aerospace
Part II, Journal of aircraft and spacecraft technology, 1 (1 ).
Petrescu, Victoria
Aversa, Lovell; Akash, Bilal;
Ronald BucknellCorchado, Juan; Berto, Filippo;
Mill Millard in Mill, Zaya.
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